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4-H clubs and project clubs

Added Oct. 31, 2010; modified Feb. 21, 2011

Use the following format to concisely and consistently list your county's 4-H clubs and project clubs along with their meeting times, meeting places, leaders and contact information. Remember to use "time, date, place" (TDP) to consistently order information about events.

Trinity 4-H Club meets at 7 p.m. on the fourth Monday of every month at the extension center in Columbia. Club leaders: Donna Johnson, 573-999-9999, or Jane Doe, 573-999-1234 or janedoe@hotmail.com

Tagged as: Counties and regions

4-H name and emblem

Added June 20, 2009; modified April 7, 2015

The National 4-H Headquarters has published federally mandated policies regarding the use of the 4-H emblem and logo. See the policies on the web at: http://nifa.usda.gov/resource/4-h-name-and-emblem.

Source: National 4-H Headquarters

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

abbreviations and acronyms

Added June 20, 2009

Avoid abbreviations and acronyms when possible. Spell out program names — the public is not as familiar with most of our program names as we are.

If the name will be mentioned multiple times on the page, then spell out the program name on first reference then put the acronym in parentheses after the spelled-out version. Example: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has set guidelines for … . (This is no longer AP style, but we still follow this rule.)

Spell out all words such as "through" and "with."

See also: state names

Tagged as: Frequently needed

academic degrees

Added June 20, 2009; modified Oct. 24, 2013

If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone's credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as Sally Ray, who has a bachelor's degree, master's degree or doctorate in English.

  • Use an apostrophe in bachelor's, master's.

  • Use such abbreviations as BA, MA and PhD only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would make the preferred form cumbersome.

  • The exception: When identifying MU alumni in a profile or story about them, use this form, set off by commas, after the person's name: Bill Doe, BS '95, and Sally Ray, MA '04. When they have multiple degrees from different years, use this form: Sally Ray, BS '78, MS '81. For multiple degrees in the same year, use this form: Bill Doe, BA, BJ '92.

  • When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas: Bill Doe, PhD, spoke to the class.

  • Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow the name with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference, as in Dr. Bill Doe, MD.

  • Do not capitalize degrees unless abbreviated: Bill Doe, MA '95, serves as president of his local Optimist Club or Bill Doe received a master's degree in journalism from XYZ College.

When you are listing your credentials for your staff directory page, list them in bulleted format.

Example:

  • Doctoral candidate in animal sciences from the University of Missouri, expected 2018

  • Master's in agricultural education from the University of Missouri, 2013

  • Bachelor's in animal science from Missouri State University, 2010

Source: MU Office of Publications and Alumni Communication and MU Extension

academic titles

Added June 20, 2009

Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as chancellor, chairman, etc., when they precede a name. Lowercase elsewhere.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: academic degrees, courtesy titles and name on second reference, titles of people

accessibility

Added June 20, 2009; modified June 17, 2014

Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires public agencies to make their web pages accessible to people with disabilities. All users should be able to obtain and use information quickly and easily. Many of our MU Extension styles and guidelines were decided because of accessibility issues. Some of these styles include colors to use and to avoid, font size, fonts, heading hierarchies, all caps, alt text, underline and link text. To learn more, see http://www.section508.gov/.

Adobe Reader links

Added June 20, 2009

Make links to download the Adobe Reader text only. The technology is common enough that the graphic link to download the reader is unnecessary.

ages

Added June 20, 2009

Always use figures. The girl is 15 years old; the law is 8 years old; the 101-year-old house. When the context does not require years or years old, the figure is presumed to be years.

Use hyphens for ages expressed as adjectives before a noun or as substitutes for a noun.

Examples:

A 5-year-old boy, but the boy is 5 years old.
The boy, 7, has a sister, 10.
The woman, 26, has a daughter 2 months old.
The race is for 3-year-olds.
The woman is in her 30s (no apostrophe).

Source: AP Stylebook

ALL CAPS

Added June 20, 2009

There is rarely a need to use all caps. ALL CAPS FORM A BLOCK OF LETTERS THAT ARE HARD TO DISTINGUISH FROM EACH OTHER BECAUSE THEY ARE ALL THE SAME HEIGHT AND HAVE NO ASCENDERS AND DESCENDERS while lowercase and mixed case words have both ascenders and descenders and thus have more distinctive word shapes. Use italic or bold for emphasis.

Example:

A National Institute of Health graphic illustrates all caps vs. lowercase.

Tagged as: Frequently needed

alt text and advisory title for web images

Added Nov. 2, 2010; modified June 17, 2014

Alt text, the alternative text used by screen readers and text readers to describe an image on a web page, is required for accessibility and useful for search engine optimization of your page. When writing alt text, imagine how you might briefly describe the image to someone over the phone. Keep alt text short and meaningful — a good rule of thumb is to keep length to fewer than 50 characters (around 10 words) and no more than 140 characters (around 25 words). Mention in the alt text that the image is a photograph or drawing if it helps convey the meaning. If the image is also a link to another page, mention that in the alt text.

An advisory title, which can be the same as the alt text, allows the image description to show up when a user's mouse hovers over the image.

To enter alt text and an advisory title using the WebTool content management system, go to Image Properties for the image and type the description in the Alternative Text box. Then go to the Advanced tab and enter the same text in the Advisory Title box.

Examples:

Useful alt text: MU Extension logo
Less useful alt text: logo

Useful alt text for the image shown below: Pie chart of greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector: industry 29%, transportation 28%, commercial 17%, residential 17% and agriculture 9%.
Less useful alt text for the same image: Greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector.

 

Pie chart of greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector: industry 29%, transportation 28%, commercial 17%, residential 17% and agriculture 9%.

ampersand (&)

Added June 20, 2009

Do not use an ampersand in place of "and."

Tagged as: Frequently needed

audio files

Added Oct. 31, 2010

When linking to audio files for either radio station or customer use, be sure to include the following along with the audio file in MP3 format: format, date recorded, topic, length, and a full script for accessibility.

For county web pages: Place the audio files in your county documents folder or in your region’s documents folder if more than one county will link to them.

Tagged as: Counties and regions

background images and color

Added June 20, 2009

Do not add background images or background colors to pages.

Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis

Added Nov. 20, 1995

Abbreviation is Bt with no punctuation.

Tagged as: Spelling

capitalization

Added Feb. 24, 2013

Only capitalize the first word in all headings and subheads unless the word is a proper noun or the specific name of a branded program. This is referred to by editors as "downstyle."

See also: headings, titles of MU Extension publications

Tagged as: Frequently needed

cellphone

Added March 21, 2010

One word in all references. Also smartphone is one word for an advanced cellphone that allows for email, web browsing and downloadable applications.

Source: AP Stylebook

centered text and justified text

Added Nov. 2, 2010; modified Feb. 23, 2011

In general, use the default left-justified text settings. Do not center headings, lists, captions or paragraphs. Do not center text to set it off or draw attention to it. This disrupts the patterns of the page that are set with styles and decreases readability. Do not right-justify or fully justify text on the web.

Tagged as: Frequently needed

chile

Added Feb. 25, 2010

Use chile (plural, chiles) for peppers that are pungent pods in the genus Capsicum.
Lowercase names of varieties except for Anaheim chile, Colorado chile, Hungarian yellow wax chile and Tabasco pepper chile
. Capitalize thee variety when it is named after a location or region (if it is a proper noun).

click here

Added June 20, 2009; modified Oct. 31, 2010

If at all possible, don't use the words "click here" in your links. People recognize link color conventions, so there's no need to tell them to click. Also, people using screen readers can hear a list of links on the page, but the context of the links is lost. To keep the context, make the link text tell the user where the link will take them.

Examples:

Correct link text: More information about style
Incorrect link text: Click here for more information about style.

Correct link text: For more information, visit the MU Extension style guide.
Incorrect link text: For MU Extension's style, click here.

Tagged as: Frequently needed

clip art, animation and audio clips

Added June 20, 2009

Unless they add useful information to a web page, avoid the use of clip art, animation and audio clips.

contact information

Added June 20, 2009

If you need to add contact information at the bottom of a web page, use the following format. Note that the name is linked to the person's staff page, and the email address is a mailto: link.

Example:

Contact:
Bob Schultheis
Natural Resource Engineer
schultheisr@missouri.edu
417-859-2044

See also: email addresses on the web

county

Added June 20, 2009

Spell out county unless it is abbreviated to save space in a table.

county and regional office identification

Added June 20, 2009; modified March 10, 2015

One of our strategic goals is to strengthen the awareness of MU Extension as the division of the university that carries out the university’s land-grant mission — bringing practical, research-based information to Missourians. Another goal is to create awareness that all of our varied functions make up "One MU Extension."

With that in mind, always refer to the university when you are referring to your office, and remember that MU Extension is primary and location is secondary. Your office is "University of Missouri Extension in" a location.

Use for sponsorship, as the name when listing your physical address, and for reference in fliers, brochures, presentations and newsletters:

First reference: University of Missouri Extension in < Name of county, city or region >

Second reference or first when space is limited or for physical addresses: MU Extension in < Name of county, city or region >

Examples:

A seminar, sponsored by University of Missouri Extension in Howell County, will explain the latest state tax laws.

Please mail your check to: MU Extension in New Madrid County, 420 Mott Street, New Madrid, MO 63869.

Use to name a location:

County offices

First reference: University of Missouri Extension Center in < Name of county or city >

First reference when space is limited: MU Extension Center in < Name of county or city >

Second reference: extension center

Examples:

The seminar will take place at the University of Missouri Extension Center in Howell County. Please use the parking lot in front of the extension center.

Regional offices

First reference: University of Missouri Extension <Name of region> Regional Office

Second reference or first when space is limited or for physical addresses: MU Extension <Name of region> Regional Office

Example: MU Extension East Central Regional Office

Social media:

University of Missouri Extension — < Name of county, city or region >

To learn how to make an em dash, see the em dash entry in the style guide.

Multiple center names in tables or vertical lists:

Introductory text with list of county names below: University of Missouri Extension in

Example:

University of Missouri Extension in
Adair County
Benton County
Clark County

Plural:

Lowercase centers and counties when listing more than one.

Examples:

You can attend the program at University of Missouri Extension centers in Howard, Boone and Callaway counties.

University of Missouri Extension in Howard, Boone and Callaway counties sponsors the program.

See also: em dash (—), University of Missouri Extension

Tagged as: Counties and regions, Frequently needed, Identity guidelines

county council identification

Added June 20, 2009; modified March 10, 2015

In legal documents: University of Missouri Extension Council of <Name> County

Other instances: <Name of county, city or region> University of Missouri Extension Council or <Name of county, city or region> Extension Council

Lowercase extension council(s) when not referring to a specific council entity and on second reference.

Examples:

If you would like to serve on your county extension council, contact your local University of Missouri Extension center.

The Jasper County Extension Council meets once a month.

 

See also: county and regional office identification, University of Missouri Extension

Tagged as: Counties and regions, Frequently needed, Identity guidelines

courtesy titles and name on second reference

Added June 20, 2009

Refer to both men and women by first and last name, without courtesy titles, on first reference: Susan Smith or Robert Smith. Refer to both men and women by last name, without courtesy titles, in subsequent references. Use the courtesy titles Mr., Miss, Ms. or Mrs. only in direct quotations or after first reference when a woman specifically requests it: for example, where a woman prefers to be known as Mrs. Smith or Ms. Smith.

When it is necessary to distinguish between two people who use the same last name, as in married couples or brothers and sisters, use the first and last name, without courtesy title.

In cases where a person's gender is not clear from the first name or from the story's context, indicate the gender by using he or she in subsequent references.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: academic degrees, academic titles, titles of people

dates

Added June 20, 2009; modified Nov. 25, 2014

Always use Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) without st, nd, rd or th. See months for examples and punctuation guidelines.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: months, years

Tagged as: Frequently needed

default fonts, colors and headings

Added June 20, 2009

For web pages, use the default fonts, headings, colors, etc. These font sizes and color combinations have been usability tested and are used throughout the MU Extension site. Using the set hierarchy of headings and not adding "noise" to the page with different colors and fonts creates a recognizable pattern for users who are navigating the site.

The following headings (shown in the correct sizes and colors below) are available in the MU Extension stylesheet and are accessible through the WebTool content management system:

Heading 1

Heading 2

Heading 3

Heading 4

Heading 5
Heading 6

 
Each menu page (and subpage) that you create must have an H1 heading at the top of your body content. This tells visitors, search engines and adaptive computing browsers (i.e. screen readers) that this is the beginning of the main content for the page. The H1 heading should match the text of the navigation link that brings you to the page.

dimensions

Added June 20, 2009

Use figures and spell out inches, feet, yards, etc., to indicate depth, height, length and width. Hyphenate adjectival forms before nouns.

Examples:

He is 5 feet 6 inches tall, the 5-foot-6-inch man, the 5-foot man, the basketball team signed a 7-footer.
The car is 17 feet long, 6 feet wide and 5 feet high. The rug is 9 feet by 12 feet, the 9-by-12 rug.
The storm left 5 inches of snow.
The building has 6,000 square feet of floor space.

Source: AP Stylebook

em dash (—)

Added June 20, 2009; modified June 6, 2012

Dashes can be used sparingly to set off material in the middle of a sentence or for emphasis when either a pause longer than a comma is needed or there is a sharp turn of thought. They can also be used to set off information in a list. In these cases, use an em dash with spaces on either side.

To insert the dash in a web page using the WebTool content management system, either use Insert special character in the toolbar of the WYSIWYG editor or insert "&mdash;" in the code (don't include the quotation marks).

To insert an em dash in Microsoft Word, use one of the following methods on a Windows computer (on a Mac, press [Opt]+[Shift]+-):

  • Press [Ctrl]+[Alt]+Num- (Num- means you must use the minus sign (-) on the numeric keypad).

  • Hold down the [Alt] key and type 0151 on the numeric keypad.

  • Choose Symbol from the Insert menu, click the Special Characters tab, highlight the em dash, and click Insert.

Do not use a single hyphen (-) or double hyphens (--) to indicate an em dash.

Examples:

The club's leaders — Jackie, Tom and Darlene — were all present at the meeting.
Don't delay your registration — this course fills up quickly.

email

Added March 10, 2010

Email, one word, is acceptable in all references for electronic mail.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: email addresses on the web

Tagged as: Frequently needed

email addresses on the web

Added June 20, 2009

Spell out the email address and put the mailto: link on the email address rather than on the person's name. This enables people to contact someone by email even if they've printed the page, accessed the page from a public or shared computer, or don't have email that automatically opens when they click a mailto: link.

Example:

For more information, contact DeeAnna Adkins at adkinsdk@missouri.edu or 573-882-8199.

See also: contact information, email

exclamation point (!)

Added June 20, 2009; modified June 6, 2012

Use an exclamation point to express a high degree of surprise, incredulity or other strong emotion. Avoid overuse. End mildly exclamatory sentences with a period. And definitely use only one!

Source: AP Stylebook

Tagged as: Frequently needed

file format and linking to documents

Added June 20, 2009

For faster loading and accessibility, it is desirable to build web pages rather than link to downloadable documents. If there is a reason a document should be downloadable, such as ease of printing, PDF documents are preferred over Microsoft Word or Excel documents because they are more accessible to the public.

If you are linking to a document other than a web page, give the file type (e.g., PDF, XLS, DOC, DOCX, PPT) at the end of the link in parentheses. Make sure the file type is part of the link, which will make it accessible and conform to Section 508 Accessibility Standards.

Examples (link color added for demonstration):

If you are linking only to a document:

2009 Buchanan County annual report (PDF)

2009 Buchanan County annual report (DOC)

If you are linking to more than one type of document, put the link to the first file on the text (in the example directly below, the link to the first file would be on the text "2009 Buchanan County annual report (PDF)") and the file type and the link to the second file on the second file type (in the link directly below, the link to the second file would be on the text "DOC"). Separate the links with a pipe character, which is located above the backslash on most keyboards:

2009 Buchanan County annual report (PDF) | DOC

If the information is available on a web page and also in another format(s), put the link to the web page on the text, then link the file types to the downloadable documents (separate the links with a pipe character, which is located above the backslash on most keyboards):

2009 Buchanan County annual report | PDF

2009 Buchanan County annual report | PDF | PPT

If the PDF form is both fillable and printable (usually the fillable version can also be the printable version), the style is the same as the normal PDF style:

Camp registration form (PDF)

That said, if you know your audience and think they won't realize that the form is fillable without indicating that it is, use the following style (and follow the other rules using the pipe if there's a Word version, etc.).:

Camp registration form (fillable PDF)

Tagged as: Counties and regions, Frequently needed

fractions

Added June 20, 2009

In professional design programs such as InDesign or QuarkXPress, use the glyph fractions and do not put a space between the whole number and the fraction.

Exception to AP style.

See also: numerals, numerals in recipes

fractions in recipes

Added Feb. 15, 2010

Use numerals in the ingredient list and in the recipe method when the fraction refers to an amount, such as 1/2 cup or 3/4 pound. Spell out fractions in the method when they refer to portions of ingredients or mixtures:

Add one-fourth of the egg whites.
Sitr in half of the batter.
Reduce by one-third.
Fill halfway up the sides of the pan.

Exception: Spell out fractions used in a general sense, such as "fill the muffin cups two-thirds full."

Source: The Recipe Writer's Handbook by Barbara Gibbs Ostmann and Jane L. Baker, 2001

See also: numerals in recipes, times in recipes

groundcover

Added May 24, 1999

One word.

Tagged as: Spelling

groundwater

Added May 18, 1995

Use groundwater as one word. Surface water is still used as two words.

Tagged as: Spelling

guide, guidesheet or guide sheet?

Added June 20, 2009

Always say guide or publication if referring to a guide generically. We no longer use the term guidesheet.

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

headings

Added June 20, 2009

Only capitalize the first word in all heading levels, including links that serve as headings, unless the word is a proper noun or the specific name of a branded program.

Tagged as: Frequently needed

horse fly, house fly

Added July 12, 1996

Horse fly and house fly as two words. This practice distinguishes between true flies, such as horse flies, and some other insects such as butterflies.

Exception to Webster's.

Source: Robert Hall, MU emtomologist

Tagged as: Spelling

internet

Added May 24, 2016

Note the capitalization of internet changed as of June 1, 2016.

Source: AP Stylebook

land-grant

Added Sept. 24, 2001

From Webster's New World, fourth edition: adj., designating any of a number of colleges and universities originally given federal aid, especially by land grants, on condition that they offer instruction in agriculture and the mechanical arts. They are now supported by the individual states with supplementary federal funds.

Although usage differs among educational institutions with regard to hyphenation of the term land-grant when used as a modifier, we can follow the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, which uses the hyphen in its name and in its publications.

Tagged as: Identity guidelines, Spelling

leaf spot

Added Oct. 9, 1998

Two words.

Source: Agrios, George N. 1997. Plant Pathology, 4th edition. New York: Academic Press.

Tagged as: Spelling

links and page headings

Added June 20, 2009

If you link to another web page or document, make sure the link text matches the text when you get to the page or open the document. For example, don't make a link that says "Accounting procedures" go to a page with the heading "Financial procedures."

links and referrals to external websites

Added June 20, 2009

Delivering content from the University of Missouri is our foremost goal, but to serve clients and give them thorough answers to their questions, it is sometimes necessary to refer them to other sources. This practice should be secondary and employed judiciously. MU Extension faculty members represent the interests of the university and are responsible for the quality of information disseminated.

When referring clients to non-MU websites through a link on an MU Extension website, a URL printed in a handout or newsletter, or verbally over the phone, quality is paramount over quantity.

Guidelines and practices:

Linking to external sources is recommended only as a supplement to our own material and is prioritized by:

  1. other land-grant universities;

  2. valid government sources (e.g., www.myplate.gov or www.consumer.gov);

  3. research-based nonprofit institutions (e.g., American Heart Association); and

  4. other sources only if they are carefully screened and deemed to be research-based, unbiased information in a context that does not promote a specific product, point of view, religion, political agenda, etc.

Before referring clients to an external URL, always review the site carefully and only give out the URL if it contains information you would be willing to endorse.

If you cannot provide information from MU sources, other land-grant sources or reviewed government sources, refer the client to a search engine to do their own research.

links to internal and external web pages

Added June 20, 2009

Open links to other MU Extension pages in the same tab or window. If links go to pages outside MU Extension's websites, then open them in a new tab or window. To set a link to open in a new tab or window using the CK Editor toolbar inside the WebTool content management system, choose the Link icon, then choose the Target tab, then choose New Window (_blank) from the dropdown menu.

months

Added June 20, 2009

Capitalize the names of months in all uses. When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate only Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Spell out when using alone, or with a year alone. When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with commas. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with commas.

In tables, use these three-letter forms without a period: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec.

Examples:

January 1972 was a cold month.
Jan. 2 was the coldest day of the month.
His birthday is May 8.
Feb. 14, 1987, was the target date.
She testified that it was Friday, Dec. 3, when the accident occurred.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: dates

MU Extension logo

Added June 20, 2009; modified Sept. 23, 2013

Use the University of Missouri Extension logo to identify printed and electronic resources (e.g., publications, newsletters, brochures, web pages). The logo must remain in the approved formats and proportions.

Print-quality logos are high-resolution images that may be sized in publishing software. For PowerPoint presentations, use print-quality logos. In publications, the logo may be printed in either black (one color) or black plus PMS 124 gold.

Substitutions for PMS 124:
For desktop printing (Publisher or Word), use the following. For Word and Publisher, the color for fonts and boxes can be set by choosing More Colors > Custom.

RGB: Red-241 Green-184 Blue-45

CMYK: Cyan-0 Magenta-25 Yellow-90 Black-5
When sending a Publisher file to a professional printer, use CMYK.

Web HEX: F1B82D

Note: The RGB, CMYK and HEX equivalents to PMS 124 were changed in September 2013 to match new MU campus guidelines.

Download University of Missouri Extension logos

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)

Added Oct. 13, 2009

The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is the former Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES).

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)

Added Jan. 31, 1995

In 1994, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) became the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).

nondiscrimination statement

Added June 20, 2009; modified Sept. 23, 2015

Brochures, publications and reports:
MU Extension's equal employment opportunity (EEO) nondiscrimination statement should be used on all print and web-based materials produced by MU Extension. Whenever possible, use the full statement. Check the following web page to be sure you have the most recent full nondiscrimination statement: http://extension.missouri.edu/staff/statements.aspx

When space is limited, it is acceptable to use:

an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer

Often a good design is to place the MU Extension logo at the end of the brochure followed by “an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer.”

Letterhead and newsletters:
All University of Missouri Extension letterhead and newsletters must include the following cooperating statement:

University of Missouri, Lincoln University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Local Extension Councils Cooperating

Letterhead and newsletters should also include the following nondiscrimination statement:

an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer

Note: When following the cooperating statement, the nondiscrimination statement is adjusted by making "employers" plural and removing the "an."

The cooperating statement is required only on letterhead and newsletters.

Tagged as: Frequently needed, Identity guidelines

nonpoint source pollution

Added July 22, 1999

No hyphens.

Examples: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency administers a national nonpoint source pollution grant program.

Tagged as: Spelling

nontoxic

Added Nov. 20, 1995

One word.

Tagged as: Spelling

numerals

Added June 20, 2009

A numeral is a figure, letter, word or group of words expressing a number.

Roman numerals use the letters I, V, X, L, C, D and M. Use Roman numerals for wars and to show personal sequence for animals and people: World War II, Native Dancer II, King George VI, Pope John XXIII.

Arabic numerals use the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0. Use Arabic forms unless Roman numerals are specifically required.

The figures 1, 2, 10, 101, etc. and the corresponding words — one, two, ten, one hundred one, etc. — are called cardinal numbers. The term ordinal number applies to 1st, 2nd, 10th, 101st, first, second, tenth, one hundred first, etc.

Follow these guidelines in using numerals:

Sentence start: Spell out a numeral at the beginning of a sentence. If necessary, recast the sentence. There is one exception — a numeral that identifies a calendar year.

Wrong: 993 freshmen entered the college last year.
Right: Last year 993 freshmen entered the college.
Right: 1976 was a very good year.

Casual uses: Spell out casual expressions: A thousand times no! Thanks a million. He walked a quarter of a mile.

Proper names: Use words or numerals according to an organization's practice: 3M, Twentieth Century Fund, Big Ten.

Figures or words? For ordinals:

Spell out first through ninth when they indicate sequence in time or location: first base, the First Amendment, he was first in line. Starting with 10th use figures.

Use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. when the sequence has been assigned in forming names. The principal examples are geographic, military and political designations such as 1st Ward, 7th Fleet and 1st Sgt. See examples in the separate entries listed below.

Some punctuation and usage examples:

Act 1, Scene 2
a 5-year-old girl
3 ounces
4-foot-long
4-foot fence
3-week-old war, but three-week war
"The president's speech lasted 18 1/2 minutes," she said.
the 1980s, the '80s
the House voted 230-205. (Fewer than 1,000 votes.)
Jimmy Carter defeated Gerald Ford 40,827,292 to 39,146,157. (More than 1,000 votes.)
Carter defeated Ford 10 votes to 2 votes in Little Junction. (To avoid confusion with ratio.)
5 cents, $1.05, $650,000, $2.45 million
No. 3 choice, but Public School 3
0.6 percent, 1 percent, 6.5 percent
a pay increase of 12-15 percent
Or: a pay increase of between 12 and 15 percent
from $12 million to $14 million
a ratio of 2-to-1, a 2-1 ratio
1 in 4 voters
a 4-3 score
minus 10, zero, 60 degrees

Other uses: For uses not covered by these listings: Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above. Typical examples: They had three sons and two daughters. They had a fleet of 10 station wagons and two buses.

In a series: Apply the appropriate guidelines: They had 10 dogs, six cats and 97 hamsters. They had four four-room houses, 10 three-room houses and 12 10-room houses.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: numerals in recipes

numerals in recipes

Added Feb. 15, 2010

All numbers for amounts take numerals: 2 teaspoons.
In text, use figures of numbers 10 and above, and spell out numbers nine and below (follow AP style).
In recipe names, follow the same rule. In ingredient lists, use figures for all numbers and fractions. In recipe method, use figures for numbers and fractions that refer to specific measurements (5 inches, 4 dozen, 1/2 cup).

Exceptions:

  • Spell out numbers used in a general sense, such as "add eggs, one at a time" or "cut in shortening with two knives."

  • Avoid using two numbers together, such as "1 8-ounce package," because this can easily be read as "18 ounce package." In the ingredient list, the best way to prevent this is to use parentheses: 1 (8-ounce) package.

  • In recipe instructions or in a phrase that is already within parentheses, spell out the first number: one 8-ounce package.

  • Never begin a sentence with a figure; spell out the number or reword the sentence.

Source: The Recipe Writer's Handbook by Barbara Gibbs Ostmann and Jane L. Baker, 2001

See also: fractions in recipes, numerals, times in recipes

office hours

Added June 20, 2009

See examples under "times" entry.

See also: times

permissions

Added Oct. 31, 2010; modified Feb. 19, 2013

You must obtain and keep on file permission to use any copyrighted photo, graphic or text from another organization. If in doubt about whether it is available for free use, ask for permission.

photo releases

Added June 20, 2009

You must obtain written permission to use an individual's image in all publications, including web documents and videos. For the forms and more information, see the Copyright, Fair Use and Photos guidelines.

photographs

Added June 20, 2009

In general, for both the web and print, only color-correct, crop and re-size images. Only use image-altering features such as beveling, blurring, etc., with a useful purpose, which will be extremely rarely.

Sizes: Images will generally load faster and look better smaller than the maximum sizes listed below (especially the maximum size for the "County without calendar" template).

  • Maximum image width for a photo in the middle column of a template that includes the calendar: 360 pixels

  • Maximum image width for a photo in a template that does not include the calendar: 560 pixels

ETCS has provided GIMP image editing software on office computers. For more information, see this tutorial on resizing photos with GIMP.

photos of faculty and staff on content pages on the web

Added Oct. 31, 2010

To place a photo of an employee on a content page, link to the person's directory photograph, which will be of an appropriate size for the page. Find the photo through your browser in the following directory: http://extension.missouri.edu/uoedir/photos. Find the photo in the list, click on the photo, then copy the URL in your browser to make the correct link.

postemergence, preemergence

Added Feb. 5, 1996

No hyphen in either term.

Tagged as: Spelling

preharvest, postharvest

Added Nov. 20, 1995

No hyphens.

Tagged as: Spelling

preregistration

Added Jan. 25, 2011

The term registration is more appropriate for most small courses or meetings with only one registration period. Only use preregistration if you have an early registration period and a regular registration period.

publication references

Added June 20, 2009; modified Feb. 27, 2014

If you are linking to an MU Extension publication from a web page, give the publication number followed by a comma and the full title of the publication as the link. Always link to the web page version of the publication rather than the PDF version so that users will still be oriented within the website and have navigational links on the page. To be clear that the link is to a publication, refer to the publication as an MU Extension publication. If you have a list of several publications, make a list that is preceded by text such as: "For more information, see the following MU Extension publications."

If you are mentioning a publication in a printed document, list the number and title in the same way but italicize the publication title.

Examples:

MU Extension publication G9433, Methods for Counting Quail on Your Property

For more information, see MU Extension publications EMW1001, Disaster Recovery Resources for Missouri Families, and EMW1011, Family Disaster Plans.

 

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

record keeping

Added Jan. 27, 1998

Record keeping should always be two words. Do not confuse record keeping with bookkeeping (one word).

Tagged as: Spelling

side-dressing, top-dressing

Added July 29, 1998

side-dressing (n), side-dress (vt) — Webster's Collegiate

top-dressing (n), top-dress (vt) — Webster's New World

Tagged as: Spelling

signs

Added June 20, 2009; modified Dec. 15, 2012

Signage, indoor and outdoor, should include the current extension logo. Any accompanying text should be in the font ITC Avant Garde Gothic (T1), which should be widely available at sign shops.

Note: Vendors often require larger file sizes or a different file format than are available for download. Please contact Dennis Gagnon, gagnond@missouri.edu, director of communications and marketing, if you need a different type or size of file than is provided or if you have questions about acceptable wording or logo placement.

Download University of Missouri Extension logos

state names

Added June 20, 2009; modified Jan. 12, 2015

Follow these guidelines:

In textual material: When listed with a city name, abbreviate all state names except the eight mentioned in the following paragraph. (This is an exception to a change made by AP in 2014.) Spell out the names of all 50 U.S. states when they stand alone without the city name. For how to punctuate, see below.

Eight not abbreviated: The names of eight states are never abbreviated in text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah.

Punctuation: Place one comma between the city and the state name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence: He was traveling from Nashville, Tenn., to Austin, Texas, en route to his home in Albuquerque, N.M. She said Cook County, Ill., was Mayor Daley's stronghold.

When abbreviations are required, use the state abbreviations listed below:

  • In conjunction with the name of a city, town, village or military base.

  • In short-form listings of party affiliation: D-Ala., R-Mont.

Use the two-letter Postal Service abbreviations (in parentheses below) only with full addresses that include a ZIP code.

Ala. (AL) Alaska (AK) Ariz. (AZ) Ark. (AR) Calif. (CA) Colo. (CO) Conn. (CT)
Del. (DE) Fla. (FL) Ga. (GA) Hawaii (HI) Idaho (ID) Ill. (IL) Iowa (IA)
Ind. (IN) Kan. (KS) Ky. (KY) La. (LA) Maine (ME) Md. (MD) Mass. (MA)
Mich. (MI) Minn. (MN) Miss. (MS) Mo. (MO) Mont. (MT) Neb. (NE) Nev. (NV)
N.H. (NH) N.J. (NJ) N.M. (NM) N.Y. (NY) N.C. (NC) N.D. (ND) Ohio (OH)
Okla. (OK) Ore. (OR) Pa. (PA) R.I. (RI) S.C. (SC) S.D. (SD) Tenn. (TN)
Texas (TX) Utah (UT) Vt. (VT) Va. (VA) Wash. (WA) W.Va. (WV) Wis. (WI)
Wyo. (WY) Also: District of Columbia (DC)

 

See also: abbreviations and acronyms

tables in web pages

Added June 20, 2009; modified Feb. 19, 2013

Use tables only to format tabular data, not to format text or format a page.

telephone answering

Added June 20, 2009

Standard office protocols across the state will help deliver a consistent identity to our clientele.

Answer office telephones with "University of Missouri Extension." The appropriate office name may follow: "Boone County" or "Administrative Management.

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

telephone directory

Added June 20, 2009

Standard office protocols across the state will help deliver a consistent identity to our clientele.

White Pages: List under "U" as "University of Missouri Extension." Also, list alphabetically under county name.

Yellow Pages or Blue (Government) Pages: List under county government. May be listed under Universities and Colleges in yellow pages: "University of Missouri Extension."

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

telephone numbers

Added June 20, 2009

Use figures. The form: 212-621-1500. For international numbers use 011 (from the United States), the country code, the city code and the telephone number: 011-44-20-7535-1515. Use hyphens, not periods.

The form for toll-free numbers: 800-111-1000.

If extension numbers are needed, use a comma to separate the main number from the extension: 212-621-1500, ext. 2.

Source: AP Stylebook

Tagged as: Frequently needed

times

Added June 20, 2009

Use figures except for noon and midnight. Use a colon to separate hours from minutes: 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 3:30 p.m., 9-11 a.m., 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

Avoid such redundancies as 10 a.m. this morning, 10 p.m. tonight or 10 p.m. Monday night. Use 10 a.m. or 10 p.m. Monday, etc.

The construction 4 o'clock is acceptable, but time listings with a.m. or p.m. are preferred. (Source: AP Stylebook)

For county office hours, the following format is preferred. Use a semicolon to separate days of the week when you are open different times on different days.

Examples:

8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday
8 a.m. to noon and 1-5 p.m. Monday through Friday
8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Thursday; 8 a.m. to noon Friday

See also: office hours

Tagged as: Frequently needed

times in recipes

Added Feb. 15, 2010

In the recipe method, use numerals for timing: Cook until sugar is melted and golden, about 5 minutes.

Source: The Recipe Writer's Handbook by Barbara Gibbs Ostmann and Jane L. Baker, 2001

See also: numerals in recipes

titles of MU Extension publications

Added June 20, 2009

Capitalize all words except articles and prepositions (unless prepositions are four letters or more, such as "from" and "about").

See also: guide, guidesheet or guide sheet?, publication references

Tagged as: Frequently needed

titles of people

Added June 20, 2009

In general, confine capitalization to formal titles used directly before an individual's name.

Source: AP Stylebook

See also: academic degrees, academic titles, courtesy titles and name on second reference, vice chancellor for extension and engagement

underline

Added June 20, 2009

Do not underline text. Underlined text on the web can be confused with hyperlinked text. Use bold or italic for emphasis.

Tagged as: Frequently needed

University of Missouri Extension

Added June 20, 2009; modified June 6, 2014

Organizational identity:

University of Missouri Extension is the formal name for the systemwide function that represents the extension mission of the University of Missouri.

Example: A University of Missouri Extension seminar will explain the latest state tax laws.

MU Extension is the preferred second reference for programs based on the Columbia campus and at county extension centers and may be used as a first reference when space is limited.

Example: A complete list of seminar sites is available on the MU Extension website at extension.missouri.edu.

UMKC Extension, Missouri S&T Extension and UM-St. Louis Extension are the preferred second references for programs based on these campuses.

Capitalize the word "extension" when it is used as part of a formal name, such as "University of Missouri Extension Association." Lowercase in all other instances, such as "the extension program." See the following paragraph for correct usage.

Jane Doe, extension associate and entomologist, offers answers about plant pests for homeowners, farmers, gardeners and businesses across Missouri. MU Extension specialists in county offices frequently send her samples from residents in their region. Doe and other entomologists from extension programs across the nation share sample data at the Insects of Northern States Extension Collaboration Team (INSECT) meetings.

Do not form acronyms by using "E" for Extension, such as MUE or UME, in external or internal communications. The preferred way to show our web address is extension.missouri.edu.

Other campuses:

University of Missouri Extension programs located at UMKC, Missouri S&T and UM-St. Louis are encouraged to use their campus logos and associated guidelines with the nomenclature "University of Missouri Extension." The relationship with University of Missouri Extension should be stated clearly where appropriate in publications, websites, etc. The use of a University of Missouri Extension logo is optional.

Tagged as: Frequently needed, Identity guidelines

URL (uniform resource locater)

Added June 20, 2009

For print-based resources, use the shortest working version of the URL. Do not routinely add www. While many URLs work when you add www to the beginning of a URL, some will not. Note that there are sites where www is required in the URL. Always test prior to editing out the www. Our main URL, extension.missouri.edu, does not require the www.

In print and electronic publishing, use the protocol (e.g., http://, https://, ftp://). Don't assume http:// is the correct protocol without checking.

Exception: For marketing materials that list extension.missouri.edu as a stand-alone entity (not used in a sentence), it is acceptable to drop the protocol, or http://.

Don't underline links in printed publications because underscores used in the URL will be unreadable.
Don't underline links in web pages because our style is already set to underline links on hover.

vice chancellor for extension and engagement

Added June 20, 2009; modified Nov. 10, 2016

First reference: Do not capitalize the title if used after the name. Capitalize the title if used before the name.

Examples:

Marshall Stewart, University of Missouri vice chancellor for engagement and extension, will speak at the meeting.

Vice Chancellor for Extension and Engagement Marshall Stewart will speak at the meeting.

Second reference: Stewart

See also: academic titles, courtesy titles and name on second reference

Tagged as: Identity guidelines

water quality

Added May 18, 1995

Don't hyphenate water quality when it serves as a compound modifier. Even though it is two words, we treat it as a single entity. For example, we would not hyphenate "water quality problem."

Tagged as: Spelling

website

Added June 20, 2009; modified May 24, 2016

A location on the World Wide Web that maintains one or more pages at a specific address. Use web as a short form. Use these terms as one word: webpage, webcam, webcast, webfeed and webmaster. Use these terms as separate words: web address and web browser. Note the capitalization of web and the use of webpage and webfeed as one word are changes as of June 1, 2016.

Source: AP Stylebook

weights

Added June 20, 2009

Use figures: The baby weighed 7 pounds, 15 ounces. She had a 7-pound, 15-ounce girl.

Source: AP Stylebook

years

Added June 20, 2009; modified Nov. 25, 2014

Use figures, without commas: 1975. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with a comma: Feb. 14, 1987, is the target date. Use an "s" without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries: the 1890s, the 1800s, the 80s. Do not abbreviate the year with an apostrophe (i.e., use 2010 rather than '10, the 80s rather than the '80s).

See also: dates, months

youth or youths?

Added Jan. 30, 2002

The noun "youths" is the plural (Webster's New World, fourth edition) when referring to more than one young person.

Example: The program teaches youths the value of good record keeping.

The noun youth refers to either one young person, or the state or quality of being young, or young people collectively. Example: Missouri 4-H Youth Programs

Tagged as: Spelling